Metadynamics is an atomistic simulation technique that allows, within the same framework, acceleration of rare events and estimation of the free energy of complex molecular systems. It is based on iteratively ‘filling’ the potential energy of the system by a sum of Gaussians centred along the trajectory followed by a suitably chosen set of collective variables (CVs), thereby forcing the system to migrate from one minimum to the next. The power of metadynamics is demonstrated by the large number of extensions and variants that have been developed. The first scope of this Technical Review is to present a critical comparison of these variants, discussing their advantages and disadvantages. The effectiveness of metadynamics, and that of the numerous alternative methods, is strongly influenced by the choice of the CVs. If an important variable is neglected, the resulting estimate of the free energy is unreliable, and predicted transition mechanisms may be qualitatively wrong. The second scope of this Technical Review is to discuss how the CVs should be selected, how to verify whether the chosen CVs are sufficient or redundant, and how to iteratively improve the CVs using machine learning approaches.

Using metadynamics to explore complex free-energy landscapes / Bussi, Giovanni; Laio, Alessandro. - In: NATURE REVIEWS PHYSICS. - ISSN 2522-5820. - 2:(2020), pp. 200-212. [10.1038/s42254-020-0153-0]

Using metadynamics to explore complex free-energy landscapes

Bussi, Giovanni;Laio, Alessandro
2020-01-01

Abstract

Metadynamics is an atomistic simulation technique that allows, within the same framework, acceleration of rare events and estimation of the free energy of complex molecular systems. It is based on iteratively ‘filling’ the potential energy of the system by a sum of Gaussians centred along the trajectory followed by a suitably chosen set of collective variables (CVs), thereby forcing the system to migrate from one minimum to the next. The power of metadynamics is demonstrated by the large number of extensions and variants that have been developed. The first scope of this Technical Review is to present a critical comparison of these variants, discussing their advantages and disadvantages. The effectiveness of metadynamics, and that of the numerous alternative methods, is strongly influenced by the choice of the CVs. If an important variable is neglected, the resulting estimate of the free energy is unreliable, and predicted transition mechanisms may be qualitatively wrong. The second scope of this Technical Review is to discuss how the CVs should be selected, how to verify whether the chosen CVs are sufficient or redundant, and how to iteratively improve the CVs using machine learning approaches.
2020
https://www.nature.com/articles/s42254-020-0153-0
Bussi, Giovanni; Laio, Alessandro
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11767/110289
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