Cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) promote the biosynthesis of steroid hormones with major impact on the onset of diseases such as breast and prostate cancers. By merging distinct functions into the same catalytic scaffold, steroidogenic CYP450s enhance complex chemical transformations with extreme efficiency and selectivity. Mammalian CYP450s and their redox partners are membrane-anchored proteins, dynamically associating to form functional machineries. Mounting evidence signifies that environmental factors are strictly intertwined with CYP450s catalysis. Atomic-level simulations have the potential to provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of steroidogenic CYP450s and on its regulation by environmental factors, furnishing information often inaccessible to experimental means. In this review, after an introduction of computational methods commonly employed to tackle these systems, we report the current knowledge on three steroidogenic CYP450s—CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and CYP19A1—endowed with multiple catalytic functions and critically involved in cancer onset. In particular, besides discussing their catalytic mechanisms, we highlight how the membrane environment contributes to (i) regulate ligand channeling through these enzymes, (ii) modulate their interactions with specific protein partners, (iii) mediate post-transcriptional regulation induced by phosphorylation. The results presented set the basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies aimed at fighting diseases originating from steroid metabolism dysfunction.
The catalytic mechanism of steroidogenic cytochromes P450 from all-atom simulations: Entwinement with membrane environment, redox partners, and post-transcriptional regulation / Spinello, A.; Ritacco, I.; Magistrato, A.. - In: CATALYSTS. - ISSN 2073-4344. - 9:1(2019), pp. 1-22.
|Titolo:||The catalytic mechanism of steroidogenic cytochromes P450 from all-atom simulations: Entwinement with membrane environment, redox partners, and post-transcriptional regulation|
|Autori:||Spinello, A.; Ritacco, I.; Magistrato, A.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/catal9010081|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.2 Review in journal|