The E and B Experiment (EBEX) was a long-duration balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter that flew over Antarctica in 2012. We describe the experiment's optical system, receiver, and polarimetric approach and report on their in-flight performance. EBEX had three frequency bands centered on 150, 250, and 410 GHz. To make efficient use of limited mass and space, we designed a 115 cm2 sr high-throughput optical system that had two ambient temperature mirrors and four antireflection-coated polyethylene lenses per focal plane. All frequency bands shared the same optical train. Polarimetry was achieved with a continuously rotating achromatic half-wave plate (AHWP) that was levitated with a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB). This is the first use of an SMB in astrophysics. Rotation stability was 0.45% over a period of 10 hr, and angular position accuracy was 0.°01. The measured modulation efficiency was above 90% for all bands. To our knowledge the 109% fractional bandwidth of the AHWP was the broadest implemented to date. The receiver, composed of one lens and the AHWP at a temperature of 4 K, the polarizing grid and other lenses at 1 K, and the two focal planes at 0.25 K, performed according to specifications, giving focal plane temperature stability with a fluctuation power spectrum that had a 1/f knee at 2 mHz. EBEX was the first balloon-borne instrument to implement technologies characteristic of modern CMB polarimeters, including high-throughput optical systems, and large arrays of transition edge sensor bolometric detectors with multiplexed readouts.

The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment - Optics, Receiver, and Polarimetry / Aboobaker, A. M.; Ade, P.; Araujo, D.; Aubin, F.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bao, C.; Chapman, D.; Didier, J.; Dobbs, M.; Geach, C.; Grainger, W.; Hanany, S.; Helson, K.; Hillbrand, S.; Hubmayr, J.; Jaffe, A.; Johnson, B.; Jones, T.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A.; Lee, A.; Levinson, L.; Limon, M.; Macdermid, K.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, A. D.; Milligan, M.; Raach, K.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Sagiv, I.; Savini, G.; Spencer, L.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Westbrook, B.; Young, K.; Zilic, K.. - In: ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES. - ISSN 0067-0049. - 239:1(2018), pp. 1-25. [10.3847/1538-4365/aae434]

The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment - Optics, Receiver, and Polarimetry

Baccigalupi, C.;Jaffe, A.;Lee, A.;Limon, M.;Savini, G.;
2018

Abstract

The E and B Experiment (EBEX) was a long-duration balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter that flew over Antarctica in 2012. We describe the experiment's optical system, receiver, and polarimetric approach and report on their in-flight performance. EBEX had three frequency bands centered on 150, 250, and 410 GHz. To make efficient use of limited mass and space, we designed a 115 cm2 sr high-throughput optical system that had two ambient temperature mirrors and four antireflection-coated polyethylene lenses per focal plane. All frequency bands shared the same optical train. Polarimetry was achieved with a continuously rotating achromatic half-wave plate (AHWP) that was levitated with a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB). This is the first use of an SMB in astrophysics. Rotation stability was 0.45% over a period of 10 hr, and angular position accuracy was 0.°01. The measured modulation efficiency was above 90% for all bands. To our knowledge the 109% fractional bandwidth of the AHWP was the broadest implemented to date. The receiver, composed of one lens and the AHWP at a temperature of 4 K, the polarizing grid and other lenses at 1 K, and the two focal planes at 0.25 K, performed according to specifications, giving focal plane temperature stability with a fluctuation power spectrum that had a 1/f knee at 2 mHz. EBEX was the first balloon-borne instrument to implement technologies characteristic of modern CMB polarimeters, including high-throughput optical systems, and large arrays of transition edge sensor bolometric detectors with multiplexed readouts.
239
1
1
25
https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.03847
Aboobaker, A. M.; Ade, P.; Araujo, D.; Aubin, F.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bao, C.; Chapman, D.; Didier, J.; Dobbs, M.; Geach, C.; Grainger, W.; Hanany, S.; Helson, K.; Hillbrand, S.; Hubmayr, J.; Jaffe, A.; Johnson, B.; Jones, T.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A.; Lee, A.; Levinson, L.; Limon, M.; Macdermid, K.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, A. D.; Milligan, M.; Raach, K.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Sagiv, I.; Savini, G.; Spencer, L.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Westbrook, B.; Young, K.; Zilic, K.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11767/111372
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