We study the statistics of energy fluctuations in a three-level quantum system subject to a sequence of projective quantum measurements. We check that, as expected, the quantum Jarzynski equality holds provided that the initial state is thermal. The latter condition is trivially satisfied for two-level systems, while this is generally no longer true for N-level systems, with N > 2. Focusing on three-level systems, we discuss the occurrence of a unique energy scale factor βeff that formally plays the role of an effective inverse temperature in the Jarzynski equality. To this aim, we introduce a suitable parametrization of the initial state in terms of a thermal and a non-thermal component. We determine the value of βeff for a large number of measurements and study its dependence on the initial state. Our predictions could be checked experimentally in quantum optics.

Quantum-heat fluctuation relations in three-level systems under projective measurements / Giachetti, G.; Gherardini, S.; Trombettoni, A.; Ruffo, S.. - In: CONDENSED MATTER. - ISSN 2410-3896. - 5:1(2020). [10.3390/condmat5010017]

Quantum-heat fluctuation relations in three-level systems under projective measurements

Trombettoni A.;Ruffo S.
2020

Abstract

We study the statistics of energy fluctuations in a three-level quantum system subject to a sequence of projective quantum measurements. We check that, as expected, the quantum Jarzynski equality holds provided that the initial state is thermal. The latter condition is trivially satisfied for two-level systems, while this is generally no longer true for N-level systems, with N > 2. Focusing on three-level systems, we discuss the occurrence of a unique energy scale factor βeff that formally plays the role of an effective inverse temperature in the Jarzynski equality. To this aim, we introduce a suitable parametrization of the initial state in terms of a thermal and a non-thermal component. We determine the value of βeff for a large number of measurements and study its dependence on the initial state. Our predictions could be checked experimentally in quantum optics.
5
1
17
https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3896/5/1/17
https://arxiv.org/abs/2002.12059
Giachetti, G.; Gherardini, S.; Trombettoni, A.; Ruffo, S.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11767/116491
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