Sodium-Galactose Transporter (SGLT) is a secondary active symporter which accumulates sugars into cells by using the electrochemical gradient of Na+ across the membrane. Previous computational studies provided insights into the release process of the two ligands (galactose and sodium ion) into the cytoplasm from the inward-facing conformation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT). Several aspects of the transport mechanism of this symporter remain to be clarified: (i) a detailed kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the exit path of the two ligands is still lacking; (ii) contradictory conclusions have been drawn concerning the gating role of Y263; (iii) the role of Na+ in modulating the release path of galactose is not clear. In this work, we use bias-exchange metadynamics simulations to characterize the free energy profile of the galactose and Na+ release processes toward the intracellular side. Surprisingly, we find that the exit of Na+ and galactose is non-concerted as the cooperativity between the two ligands is associated to a transition that is not rate limiting. The dissociation barriers are of the order of 11-12 kcal/mol for both the ion and the substrate, in line with kinetic information concerning this type of transporters. On the basis of these results we propose a branched six-state alternating access mechanism, which may be shared also by other members of the LeuT-fold transporters.
|Titolo:||Metadynamics Simulations Reveal a Na+ Independent Exiting Path of Galactose for the Inward-Facing Conformation of vSGLT|
|Autori:||Bisha I.; Rodriguez A.; Laio A.; Magistrato A.|
|Rivista:||PLOS COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004017|
|Fulltext via DOI:||10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Journal article|