Ordinary ice has a proton-disordered phase which is kinetically metastable, unable to reach, spontaneously, the ferroelectric (FE) ground state at low temperature where a residual Pauling entropy persists. Upon light doping with KOH at low temperature, the transition to FE ice takes place, but its microscopic mechanism still needs clarification. We introduce a lattice model based on dipolar interactions plus a competing, frustrating term that enforces the ice rule (IR). In the absence of IR-breaking defects, standard Monte Carlo (MC) simulation leaves this ice model stuck in a state of disordered proton ring configurations with the correct Pauling entropy. A replica exchange accelerated MC sampling strategy succeeds, without open path moves, interfaces, or off-lattice configurations, in equilibrating this defect-free ice, reaching its lowtemperature FE order through a well-defined first-order phase transition. When proton vacancies mimicking the KOH impurities are planted into the IR-conserving lattice, they enable standard MC simulation to work, revealing the kinetics of evolution of ice from proton disorder to partial FE order below the transition temperature. Replacing ordinary nucleation, each impurity opens up a proton ring generating a linear string, an actual FE hydrogen bond wire that expands with time. Reminiscent of those described for spin ice, these impurity-induced strings are proposed to exist in doped water ice too, where IRs are even stronger. The emerging mechanism yields a dependence of the long-time FE order fraction upon dopant concentration, and upon quenching temperature, that compares favorably with that known in real-life KOH doped ice.

Proton strings and rings in atypical nucleation of ferroelectricity in ice / Lasave, J.; Koval, S.; Laio, A.; Tosatti, E.. - In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. - ISSN 0027-8424. - 118:1(2021), pp. 1-8. [10.1073/pnas.2018837118]

Proton strings and rings in atypical nucleation of ferroelectricity in ice

Koval, S.;Laio, A.;Tosatti, E.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Ordinary ice has a proton-disordered phase which is kinetically metastable, unable to reach, spontaneously, the ferroelectric (FE) ground state at low temperature where a residual Pauling entropy persists. Upon light doping with KOH at low temperature, the transition to FE ice takes place, but its microscopic mechanism still needs clarification. We introduce a lattice model based on dipolar interactions plus a competing, frustrating term that enforces the ice rule (IR). In the absence of IR-breaking defects, standard Monte Carlo (MC) simulation leaves this ice model stuck in a state of disordered proton ring configurations with the correct Pauling entropy. A replica exchange accelerated MC sampling strategy succeeds, without open path moves, interfaces, or off-lattice configurations, in equilibrating this defect-free ice, reaching its lowtemperature FE order through a well-defined first-order phase transition. When proton vacancies mimicking the KOH impurities are planted into the IR-conserving lattice, they enable standard MC simulation to work, revealing the kinetics of evolution of ice from proton disorder to partial FE order below the transition temperature. Replacing ordinary nucleation, each impurity opens up a proton ring generating a linear string, an actual FE hydrogen bond wire that expands with time. Reminiscent of those described for spin ice, these impurity-induced strings are proposed to exist in doped water ice too, where IRs are even stronger. The emerging mechanism yields a dependence of the long-time FE order fraction upon dopant concentration, and upon quenching temperature, that compares favorably with that known in real-life KOH doped ice.
118
1
1
8
e2018837118
10.1073/pnas.2018837118
Lasave, J.; Koval, S.; Laio, A.; Tosatti, E.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11767/127289
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