We present recent existence results of periodic solutions for completely resonant nonlinear wave equations in which both `small divisor' difficulties and infinite-dimensional bifurcation phenomena occur. These results can be seen as generalizations of the classical finite-dimensional resonant center theorems of Weinstein-Moser and Fadell-Rabinowitz. The proofs are based on variational bifurcation theory: after a Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction, the small divisor problem in the range equation is overcome with a Nash-Moser implicit function theorem for a Cantor set of non-resonant parameters. Next, the infinite-dimensional bifurcation equation, variational in nature, possesses minimax mountain-pass critical points. The big difficulty is to ensure that they are not in the `Cantor gaps'. This is proved under weak non-degeneracy conditions. Finally, we also discuss the existence of forced vibrations with rational frequency. This problem requires variational methods of a completely different nature, such as constrained minimization and a priori estimates derivable from variational inequalities.