During early development of the central nervous system, there is an excessive outgrowth of neuronal projections, which later need to be refined to achieve precise connectivity. Axon pruning and degeneration are strategies used to remove exuberant neurites and connections in the immature nervous system to ensure the proper formation of functional circuitry. To observe morphological changes and physical mechanisms underlying this process, early differentiating embryonic stem cell-derived neurons were used combining video imaging of live growth cones (GCs) with confocal laser scanning microscopy and atomic force microscopy, both on fixed and living neurons. Using this method, we could highlight the presence of submicrometric fragments in still and in some of the retracting GCs. The observed fragmentation is not an artifact of atomic force microscopy scanning or fixation, or the result of apoptosis. Therefore, the morphology of GCs depends on their overall motility, and fragmentation seems to be the fate of GCs that have not found a correct destination.
|Titolo:||Fragmentation as a mechanism for growth cone pruning and degeneration|
|Autori:||Ban, J; Migliorini, E; FOGGIA V, Di; Lazzarino, M; Ruaro, M.E.; Torre, V.|
|Rivista:||STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2011|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1089/scd.2010.0217|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Journal article|