The mechanism of the enantioselective hydrosilylation of styrene catalyzed by Pd-0 species generated in situ from dichloro {1-{(R)-1-[(S)-2(diphenylphosphino-kappaP)ferrocenyl]ethyl}-3-trimethylphenyl-5-1H-pyrazole-kappaN}palladium, 1, has been investigated in detail through ab initio molecular dynamics and hybrid ab initio molecular dynamics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. Different QM/MM models have been adopted in order to probe the specific steric and electronic contributions of different substituents. The catalytic cycle is initiated by the formation of a weakly bound pi-complex (DeltaE approximate to -5.4 kcal/mol) under simultaneous detachment of the pyrazole ligand. In agreement with a Chalk-Harrod mechanism, this is followed by the migratory insertion of the hydride, which leads to a eta(3)-coordination mode of the benzylic fragment. The significant stabilization of the allylic intermediate (DeltaE approximate to -11 kcal/mol) is responsible for the high regioselectivity of the reaction (as well as for its enantioselectivity). The rate-determining step with an activation barrier of 16 kcal/mol is the migration of the silyl ligand to the a-carbon of the substrate with concomitant closure of the ligand chelate ring. This step leads to the formation of an intermediate in which the phenyl moiety of the product remains coordinated in an eta(2)-mode to the palladium. The addition of trichlorosilane leads to product formation and hence to the regeneration of the catalyst. A unimolecular reaction pathway on the other hand, in which the transfer of the silyl ligand to the benzylic fragment is concerted with the addition of a molecule of HSiCl3 to the catalyst, is disfavored by an activation barrier of similar to30 kcal/mol.

Enantioselective palladium-catalyzed hydrosilylation of styrene: Detailed reaction mechanism from first-principles and hybrid QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations / Magistrato, Alessandra; Woo, Tk; Togni, A; Rothlisberger, U.. - In: ORGANOMETALLICS. - ISSN 0276-7333. - 23:13(2004), pp. 3218-3227. [10.1021/om049969c]

Enantioselective palladium-catalyzed hydrosilylation of styrene: Detailed reaction mechanism from first-principles and hybrid QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations

MAGISTRATO, ALESSANDRA;
2004

Abstract

The mechanism of the enantioselective hydrosilylation of styrene catalyzed by Pd-0 species generated in situ from dichloro {1-{(R)-1-[(S)-2(diphenylphosphino-kappaP)ferrocenyl]ethyl}-3-trimethylphenyl-5-1H-pyrazole-kappaN}palladium, 1, has been investigated in detail through ab initio molecular dynamics and hybrid ab initio molecular dynamics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. Different QM/MM models have been adopted in order to probe the specific steric and electronic contributions of different substituents. The catalytic cycle is initiated by the formation of a weakly bound pi-complex (DeltaE approximate to -5.4 kcal/mol) under simultaneous detachment of the pyrazole ligand. In agreement with a Chalk-Harrod mechanism, this is followed by the migratory insertion of the hydride, which leads to a eta(3)-coordination mode of the benzylic fragment. The significant stabilization of the allylic intermediate (DeltaE approximate to -11 kcal/mol) is responsible for the high regioselectivity of the reaction (as well as for its enantioselectivity). The rate-determining step with an activation barrier of 16 kcal/mol is the migration of the silyl ligand to the a-carbon of the substrate with concomitant closure of the ligand chelate ring. This step leads to the formation of an intermediate in which the phenyl moiety of the product remains coordinated in an eta(2)-mode to the palladium. The addition of trichlorosilane leads to product formation and hence to the regeneration of the catalyst. A unimolecular reaction pathway on the other hand, in which the transfer of the silyl ligand to the benzylic fragment is concerted with the addition of a molecule of HSiCl3 to the catalyst, is disfavored by an activation barrier of similar to30 kcal/mol.
23
13
3218
3227
Magistrato, Alessandra; Woo, Tk; Togni, A; Rothlisberger, U.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11767/32386
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