(ImH)[trans-RuCl4(DMSO-S)(Im)], (Im = imidazole, DMSO-S = S-bonded dimethylsulfoxide), NAMI-A, is the first anticancer ruthenium compound that successfully completed Phase I clinical trials. NAMI-A shows a remarkable activity against lung metastases of solid tumors, but is not effective in the reduction of primary cancer. The structurally similar (ImH)[trans-RuCl4(Im)(2)], ICR (or KP418), and its indazole analog (KP1019) are promising candidate drugs in the treatment of colorectal cancers, but have no antimetastatic activity. Despite the pharmacological relevance of these compounds, no rationale has been furnished to explain their markedly different activity. While the nature of the chemical species responsible for their antimetastatic/anticancer activity has not been determined, it has been suggested that the difference between reduction potentials of NAMI-A and ICR may be the key to the different biological responses they induce. In this work, Density Functional Theory calculations were performed to investigate the hydrolysis of NAMI-A and ICR in both Ru-III and Ru-II oxidation states, up to the third aquation. In line with experimental findings, our calculations provide a picture of the hydrolysis of NAMI-A and ICR mainly as a stepwise loss of chloride ligands. While dissociation of Im is unlikely under neutral conditions, that of DMSO becomes competitive with the loss of chloride ions as the hydrolysis proceeds. Redox properties of NAMI-A and ICR and of their most relevant hydrolytic intermediates were also studied in order to monitor the effects of biological reductants on the mechanism of action. Our findings may contribute to the identification of the active compounds that interact with biological targets, and to explain the different biological activity of NAMI-A and ICR.
|Titolo:||The hydrolysis mechanism of the anticancer ruthenium drugs NAMI-A and ICR investigated by DFT-PCM calculations|
|Autori:||VARGIU AV; ROBERTAZZI A; MAGISTRATO A; RUGGERONE P; CARLONI P|
|Rivista:||JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. B, CONDENSED MATTER, MATERIALS, SURFACES, INTERFACES & BIOPHYSICAL|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2008|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1021/jp710078y|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Journal article|