We deal with the problem of studying the symmetries and the effective theories of long-range models around their critical points. A prominent issue is to determine whether they possess (or not) conformal symmetry (CS) at criticality and how the presence of CS depends on the range of the interactions. To have a model, both simple to treat and interesting, where to investigate these questions, we focus on the Kitaev chain with long-range pairings decaying with distance as power-law with exponent alpha. This is a quadratic solvable model, yet displaying non-trivial quantum phase transitions. Two critical lines are found, occurring respectively at a positive and a negative chemical potential. Focusing first on the critical line at positive chemical potential, by means of a renormalization group approach we derive its effective theory close to criticality. Our main result is that the effective action is the sum of two terms: a Dirac action S-D, found in the short-range Ising universality class, and an "anomalous" CS breaking term SAN. While SD originates from low-energy excitations in the spectrum, SAN originates from the higher energy modes where singularities develop, due to the long-range nature of the model. At criticality SAN flows to zero for alpha > 2, while for alpha < 2 it dominates and determines the breakdown of the CS. Out of criticality SAN breaks, in the considered approximation, the effective Lorentz invariance (ELI) for every finite alpha. As alpha increases such ELI breakdown becomes less and less pronounced and in the short-range limit alpha -> infinity the ELI is restored. In order to test the validity of the determined effective theory, we compared the two-fermion static correlation functions and the von Neumann entropy obtained from them with the ones calculated on the lattice, finding agreement. These results explain two observed features characteristic of long-range models, the hybrid decay of static correlation functions within gapped phases and the area-law violation for the von Neumann entropy. The proposed scenario is expected to hold in other long-range models displaying quasiparticle excitations in ballistic regime. From the effective theory one can also see that new phases emerge for alpha < 1. Finally we show that at every finite a the critical exponents, defined as for the short-range (alpha -> infinity) model, are not altered. This also shows that the long-range paired Kitaev chain provides an example of a long-range model in which the value of a where the CS is broken does not coincide with the value at which the critical exponents start to differ from the ones of the corresponding short-range model. At variance, for the second critical line, having negative chemical potential, only SAN (So) is present for 1 < alpha < 2 (for alpha > 2). Close to this line, where the minimum of the spectrum coincides with the momentum where singularities develop, the critical exponents change where CS is broken. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
|Titolo:||Effective Theory and Breakdown of Conformal Symmetry in a Long-Range Quantum Chain|
|Autori:||Lepori, L.; Vodola, D.; Pupillo, G.; Gori, G.; Trombettoni, A.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.aop.2016.07.026|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Journal article|