Second-order phase transitions are characterized by a divergence of the spatial correlation length of the order parameter fluctuations. For confined systems, this is known to lead to remarkable equilibrium physical phenomena, including finite-size effects and critical Casimir forces. We explore here some non-equilibrium aspects of these effects in the stationary state resulting from the action of external forces: by analyzing a model of a correlated fluid under shear, spatially confined by two parallel plates, we study the resulting viscosity within the setting of (Gaussian) Landau–Ginzburg theory. Specifically, we introduce a model in which the hydrodynamic velocity field (obeying the Stokes equation) is coupled to an order parameter with dissipative dynamics. The well-known Green–Kubo relation for bulk systems is generalized for confined systems. This is shown to result in a non-local Stokes equation for the fluid flow, due to the correlated fluctuations. The resulting effective shear viscosity shows universal as well as non-universal contributions, which we study in detail. In particular, the deviation from the bulk behavior is universal, depending on the ratio of the correlation length and the film thickness L . In addition, at the critical point the viscosity is proportional to $\ell /L$ , where $\ell $ is a dynamic length scale. These findings are expected to be experimentally observable, especially for systems where the bulk viscosity is affected by critical fluctuations.
|Titolo:||Viscosity of a sheared correlated (near-critical) model fluid in confinement|
|Autori:||Rohwer, Christian M.; Gambassi, Andrea; Krüger, Matthias|
|Rivista:||JOURNAL OF PHYSICS. CONDENSED MATTER|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1088/1361-648X/aa6e75|
|Fulltext via DOI:||https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/aa6e75|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Journal article|