One of the major goals of quantum thermodynamics is the characterization of irreversibility and its consequences in quantum processes. Here, we discuss how entropy production provides a quantification of the irreversibility in open quantum systems through the quantum fluctuation theorem. We start by introducing a two-time quantum measurement scheme, in which the dynamical evolution between the measurements is described by a completely positive, trace-preserving (CPTP) quantum map (forward process). By inverting the measurement scheme and applying the time-reversed version of the quantum map, we can study how this backward process differs from the forward one. When the CPTP map is unital, we show that the stochastic quantum entropy production is a function only of the probabilities to get the initial measurement outcomes in correspondence of the forward and backward processes. For bipartite open quantum systems we also prove that the mean value of the stochastic quantum entropy production is sub-additive with respect to the bipartition (except for product states). Hence, we find a method to detect correlations between the subsystems. Our main result is the proposal of an efficient protocol to determine and reconstruct the characteristic functions of the stochastic entropy production for each subsystem. This procedure enables to reconstruct even others thermodynamical quantities, such as the work distribution of the composite system and the corresponding internal energy. Efficiency and possible extensions of the protocol are also discussed. Finally, we show how our findings might be experimentally tested by exploiting the state of-the-art trapped-ion platforms.

Reconstructing quantum entropy production to probe irreversibility and correlations / Gherardini, Stefano; Müller, Matthias M.; Trombettoni, Andrea; Ruffo, Stefano; Caruso, Filippo. - In: QUANTUM SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. - ISSN 2058-9565. - 3:3(2018), pp. 1-28. [10.1088/2058-9565/aac7e1]

Reconstructing quantum entropy production to probe irreversibility and correlations

Gherardini, Stefano;Trombettoni, Andrea;Ruffo, Stefano;
2018

Abstract

One of the major goals of quantum thermodynamics is the characterization of irreversibility and its consequences in quantum processes. Here, we discuss how entropy production provides a quantification of the irreversibility in open quantum systems through the quantum fluctuation theorem. We start by introducing a two-time quantum measurement scheme, in which the dynamical evolution between the measurements is described by a completely positive, trace-preserving (CPTP) quantum map (forward process). By inverting the measurement scheme and applying the time-reversed version of the quantum map, we can study how this backward process differs from the forward one. When the CPTP map is unital, we show that the stochastic quantum entropy production is a function only of the probabilities to get the initial measurement outcomes in correspondence of the forward and backward processes. For bipartite open quantum systems we also prove that the mean value of the stochastic quantum entropy production is sub-additive with respect to the bipartition (except for product states). Hence, we find a method to detect correlations between the subsystems. Our main result is the proposal of an efficient protocol to determine and reconstruct the characteristic functions of the stochastic entropy production for each subsystem. This procedure enables to reconstruct even others thermodynamical quantities, such as the work distribution of the composite system and the corresponding internal energy. Efficiency and possible extensions of the protocol are also discussed. Finally, we show how our findings might be experimentally tested by exploiting the state of-the-art trapped-ion platforms.
3
3
1
28
035013
https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2058-9565/aac7e1/meta
https://arxiv.org/abs/1706.02193
Gherardini, Stefano; Müller, Matthias M.; Trombettoni, Andrea; Ruffo, Stefano; Caruso, Filippo
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11767/88168
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 14
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 11
social impact