In this Thesis I present the results of four research projects I carried out during my Ph.D. training at SISSA. The broad topic of my research was the mechanism of relaxation in isolated, integrable quantum systems. Roughly speaking, integrable quantum systems are one-dimensional lattice models or field theories that feature an extensively large number of conservation laws beyond energy and momentum conservation, which greatly influence their dynamical behaviour. Integrable systems have enjoyed a considerable interest in the last decade, mainly due to the development of ultracold atomic techniques. These techniques made it possible to implement experimentally a wealth of one-dimensional quantum models whose significance had been purely theoretical before. The theoretical interest in integrable systems stems in part from the fact that in many aspects they are exactly solvable. Exact analytical formulas are available for their spectrum and their equilibrium thermodynamic properties, creating an incentive to study analytically their non-equilibrium behaviour as well. Exact results for the dynamics of integrable systems may serve as a benchmark for confirming theories in statistical mechanics or testing approximative methods. To this day, computing analytically the entire time evolution of observables in a genuinely interacting integrable system is prohibitively difficult in general. In this Thesis, I concentrate on the description of the system at long times after it is brought out of equilibrium. Homogeneous, translationally invariant integrable systems are expected to relax to a stationary state, in which local observables are described by a generalization of the Gibbs ensemble that takes into consideration all the conservation laws beyond the energy. Two of the projects presented here concern this relaxed state. In Chapter 2, a method is presented for computing the Rényi entropies of the Generalized Gibbs Ensemble describing the relaxed state in the integrable Heisen- berg XXZ spin chain. Rényi entropies provide information about the relaxed state and its entanglement properties, going beyond the ordinary von Neumann thermo- dynamic entropy. The method presented there is very general; in principle it works in any integrable model and any translationally invariant thermodynamic macrostate. An alternative to the GGE in describing relaxed states after a quantum quench is the Quench Action approach. This approach is based on the explicit analytical knowledge of the overlaps between the initial state and the Hamiltonian eigenstates. In Chapter 3, this approach is generalized to a spin-1 integrable spin chain, the SU(3) invariant Lai–Sutherland model. The evolution of entanglement is then studied using the quasiparticle picture, which features ballistically propagating classical particle pairs carrying entanglement. If the requirement of translational invariance of the initial state is relaxed, various transport phenomena arise in integrable systems. The evolution of slowly varying, smoothly distributed states is described by a generalization of hydrodynamics, which takes into consideration the infinitely many local conservation laws. At the scale of non-diffusive, ballistic transport, the main feature of this generalized hydrodynamics (GHD) is the existence of continuity equations for the occupation number of each mode. Further two projects are presented in this Thesis which are concerned with GHD.I n Chapter 4, a numerical method is presented for computing the evolution of entanglement entropies within GHD. This method combines the quasiparticle picture of entanglement with a molecular dynamics simulation of GHD, the so-called fleagas. Numerical evidence is shown that this method reproduces previously known analytical results in GHD. Its versatility is demonstrated by computing another entanglement-related quantity, the mutual information, for which no analytical results are available. Finally, in Chapter 5, the GHD framework is generalized to a system of spin-1/2 fermions with repulsive contact interaction, the Yang–Gaudin model. It is shown that at low temperatures, the dynamics of the system is described by the superposition of two uncoupled, inhomogeneous conformal field theories. This fact can be interpreted as a separation of the spin and the charge degrees of freedom of the system.
|Titolo:||Relaxation phenomena in isolated integrable quantum systems|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1-ott-2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||8.1 PhD thesis|