Entanglement and circuit complexity are fundamental concepts in quantum information theory which turned out to have considerable applications in various contexts ranging from many-body systems and condensed matter theory to quantum gravity and black hole physics. In order to find connections between these aspects, an insightful approach consists in comparing the complexity with some entanglement measures of a given bipartition, as for instance the Von Neumann entanglement entropy. Since, for a system in a given quantum state, the bipartite entanglement can be determined once a spatial subsystem and its complement are chosen, this comparison has to be made considering the complexity of reduced density matrices. This motivates the development of techniques for determining the circuit complexity of mixed states. In this thesis, focussing on free bosonic systems, we study the circuit complexity of mixed Gaussian states by employing the Fisher information geometry for the covariance matrices. This approach allows computing the complexity between reduced density matrices (subsystem complexity), as well as the complexity between thermal states. It also leads to a precise prescription for computing the spectrum and the basis complexity and the temporal evolution of the subsystem complexity after global and local quantum quenches. The study of the subsystem complexity of a given bipartition and a complete characterisation of its entanglement requires the detailed knowledge of the corresponding reduced density matrix, or, equivalently, of the entanglement Hamiltonian. A part of this thesis is devoted to determining the entanglement Hamiltonians in free theories. At equilibrium, we consider gapless systems, with the aim of recovering the underlying CFT results, and gapped lattice models. The evolution of entanglement Hamiltonians in quantum chains after a global quench is also studied. In addition, other entanglement quantifiers, as the entanglement spectrum and the contour for the entanglement entropies, are discussed in some of these settings. Finally, motivated by theoretical and experimental advances, we also address the issue of how the entanglement splits into the different charge sectors of a system endowed with a U(1) symmetry. We focus in particular on massive theories, either continuous or on the lattice, and we try to understand whether the entanglement equipartition, which is known to characterise gapless systems, survives away from criticality.
Circuit complexity and entanglement in many-body quantum systems / Di Giulio, Giuseppe. - (2021 Sep 27).
|Autori:||Di Giulio, Giuseppe|
|Titolo:||Circuit complexity and entanglement in many-body quantum systems|
|Data di pubblicazione:||27-set-2021|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||8.1 PhD thesis|