Entanglement and symmetries are two pillars of our understanding of modern Physics, but surprisingly the study of the interplay between these two fundamental concepts has become the subject of an intense research area only in the last few years. In particular, the resolution of entanglement in the various symmetry sectors of a quantum many-body system with a global conserved charge gained a lot of interest within the entanglement community. As shown in some experimental papers, the study of this symmetry resolved entanglement is necessary for a better understanding of the non-equilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body systems. This Thesis is devoted to the study of the symmetry resolution of the entanglement measures in free fermionic systems and Conformal Field Theories. It is organised as follows. In Chap. 1 we give an overview of the main definitions and concepts related to the entanglement and its measures in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Then, we specialize to the case of conformal field theories, to derive expressions of the entanglement entropy and negativity in all the cases that will be examined in the second part of the Thesis. We finally illustrate the main free-fermionic techniques that will be used to perform the analytical as well as numerical lattice calculations. In Chap. 2, we consider a $1$-dimensional system of free fermions hopping on a lattice, in which the conserved $U(1)$ charge is the total particle number. We evaluate the symmetry resolved R'enyi and entanglement entropies determining exactly all the non-universal constants and logarithmic corrections to the scaling, thanks to the so-called Fisher-Hartwig conjecture. In Chap. 3, we study the symmetry resolved entanglement entropies in $1$-dimensional systems in presence of boundaries, considering the cases of an interval starting from the boundary and disconnected from it. We evaluate the charged and symmetry resolved entropies for conformal invariant theories and a semi-infinite chain of free fermions, finding entanglement equipartition. Using a generalization of the lattice calculations performed in Chap. 2, we also evaluate the first term breaking equipartition for the free fermionic chain. In Chap. 4, we study the symmetry resolution of the entanglement negativity in free fermionic systems, which admits a decomposition in terms of the charge imbalance between the two subsystems. We use conformal field theory to derive the universal behavior of the charge imbalance resolved negativity for a free Dirac field at finite temperature and size. For the lattice version of the Dirac filed, we also determine exactly the model-dependent terms using the Fisher-Hartwig conjecture. We find that at leading order the charge imbalance resolved negativity verifies equipartition. For the lattice model, we also evaluate the first corrections to this equipartition. In Chap. 5, we study the time evolution of the symmetry resolved entanglement entropy and a suitably defined symmetry resolved mutual information in a system of free fermions after a quench. In the context of free fermions and conformal field theories, we are able to provide analytical results for the time-dependent charged and resolved entropies, and shed light on two new physical phenomena. First, the symmetry resolved R'enyi entropies start evolving with a calculable time delay that depends on the charge sector. Second, there is an effective equipartition of the entanglement in the limit of large subsystem size. For free fermions, we also find that effective equipartition is verified by the mutual information. We expect that these phenomena occur in more general quantum systems, as they can be understood from the quasiparticle picture for the spreading of entanglement. In the Appendix, we give an overview of conformal field theory, reporting the main concepts and formulas that are needed for a more complete understanding of the previous Chapters.

Symmetry Resolution of Entanglement Measures in Free Fermionic Systems and Conformal Field Theories / Bonsignori, Riccarda. - (2021 Oct 18).

Symmetry Resolution of Entanglement Measures in Free Fermionic Systems and Conformal Field Theories

Bonsignori, Riccarda
2021-10-18

Abstract

Entanglement and symmetries are two pillars of our understanding of modern Physics, but surprisingly the study of the interplay between these two fundamental concepts has become the subject of an intense research area only in the last few years. In particular, the resolution of entanglement in the various symmetry sectors of a quantum many-body system with a global conserved charge gained a lot of interest within the entanglement community. As shown in some experimental papers, the study of this symmetry resolved entanglement is necessary for a better understanding of the non-equilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body systems. This Thesis is devoted to the study of the symmetry resolution of the entanglement measures in free fermionic systems and Conformal Field Theories. It is organised as follows. In Chap. 1 we give an overview of the main definitions and concepts related to the entanglement and its measures in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Then, we specialize to the case of conformal field theories, to derive expressions of the entanglement entropy and negativity in all the cases that will be examined in the second part of the Thesis. We finally illustrate the main free-fermionic techniques that will be used to perform the analytical as well as numerical lattice calculations. In Chap. 2, we consider a $1$-dimensional system of free fermions hopping on a lattice, in which the conserved $U(1)$ charge is the total particle number. We evaluate the symmetry resolved R'enyi and entanglement entropies determining exactly all the non-universal constants and logarithmic corrections to the scaling, thanks to the so-called Fisher-Hartwig conjecture. In Chap. 3, we study the symmetry resolved entanglement entropies in $1$-dimensional systems in presence of boundaries, considering the cases of an interval starting from the boundary and disconnected from it. We evaluate the charged and symmetry resolved entropies for conformal invariant theories and a semi-infinite chain of free fermions, finding entanglement equipartition. Using a generalization of the lattice calculations performed in Chap. 2, we also evaluate the first term breaking equipartition for the free fermionic chain. In Chap. 4, we study the symmetry resolution of the entanglement negativity in free fermionic systems, which admits a decomposition in terms of the charge imbalance between the two subsystems. We use conformal field theory to derive the universal behavior of the charge imbalance resolved negativity for a free Dirac field at finite temperature and size. For the lattice version of the Dirac filed, we also determine exactly the model-dependent terms using the Fisher-Hartwig conjecture. We find that at leading order the charge imbalance resolved negativity verifies equipartition. For the lattice model, we also evaluate the first corrections to this equipartition. In Chap. 5, we study the time evolution of the symmetry resolved entanglement entropy and a suitably defined symmetry resolved mutual information in a system of free fermions after a quench. In the context of free fermions and conformal field theories, we are able to provide analytical results for the time-dependent charged and resolved entropies, and shed light on two new physical phenomena. First, the symmetry resolved R'enyi entropies start evolving with a calculable time delay that depends on the charge sector. Second, there is an effective equipartition of the entanglement in the limit of large subsystem size. For free fermions, we also find that effective equipartition is verified by the mutual information. We expect that these phenomena occur in more general quantum systems, as they can be understood from the quasiparticle picture for the spreading of entanglement. In the Appendix, we give an overview of conformal field theory, reporting the main concepts and formulas that are needed for a more complete understanding of the previous Chapters.
Calabrese, Pasquale
Bonsignori, Riccarda
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11767/124976
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