Palytoxin (PLTX) is a highly toxic hydrophilic polyether detected in several edible marine organisms from intra-tropical areas, where seafood poisoning were reported. Symptoms usually start with gastro-intestinal malaise, often accompanied by myalgia, muscular cramps, dyspnea and, sometimes, arrhythmias. Monitoring programs in the Mediterranean Sea have detected PLTX-like molecules in edible mollusks and echinoderms. Despite the potential exposure of the human population and its high toxic potential, the toxicological profile of the molecule is still an issue. Thus, the effects of repeated oral administration of PLTX in mice were investigated. Seven days of PLTX administration caused lethality and toxic effects at doses ≥30 μg/kg/day. A NOAEL was estimated equal to 3 μg/kg/day, indicating a quite steep dose-response curve. This value, due to the limited number of animal tested, is provisional, although represents a sound basis for further testing. Macroscopic alterations at gastrointestinal level (gastric ulcers and intestinal fluid accumulation) were observed in mice dead during the treatment period. Histological analysis highlighted severe inflammation, locally associated with necrosis, at pulmonary level, as well as hyper-eosinophilia and fiber separation in myocardium. A cardiac damage was supported by the in vitro effect of the toxin on cardiomyocytes, indicating a severe and irreversible impairment of their electrical properties: electrophysiological recordings detected a progressive cell depolarization, arrest of action potentials and beating.
|Titolo:||Toxicity of palytoxin after repeated oral exposure in mice and in vitro effects on cardiomyocytes.|
|Autori:||G. Del Favero; D. Beltramo; M. Sciancalepore; P. Lorenzon; T. Coslovich; M. Poli; E. Testai; S. Sosa; A.Tubaro|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.06.003|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Journal article|