We have exploited the continuity equation approach and the star-formation timescales derived from the observed ‘main sequence’ relation ( Star Formation Rate vs Stellar Mass), to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ≳ a few 10^10 M⊙ at redshift z ≳ 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ > ≳ 10^2 M⊙ yr^−1 in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z ≲ 3 in the Far-InfraRed (FIR) band by the Herschel space observatory. We work out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ∼ 10, elucidating that the number density at z ≲ 8 for SFRs ψ ≳ 30 M⊙ yr^−1 cannot be estimated relying on the UltraViolet (UV) luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from AzTEC-LABOCA, SCUBA-2 and ALMA-SPT surveys are already digging into it. We substantiate how an observational strategy based on a color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)mm band with Herschel and SCUBA-2, supplemented by photometric data via on-source observations with ALMA, can allow to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ≲ 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)mm observations by ALMA and NIKA2. The same could be done with radio observations by SKA and its precursors. In particular we have worked out predictions for the radio counts of star-forming galaxies down to nJy levels, along with redshift distributions down to the detection limits of the phase 1 Square Kilometer Array MID telescope (SKA1-MID) and of its precursors. To do that we exploited our SFR functions with relations between SFR and radio (synchrotron and free-free) emission. Our results show that the deepest SKA1- MID surveys will detect high-z galaxies with SFRs two orders of magnitude lower com- pared to Herschel surveys. The highest redshift tails of the distributions at the detection limits of planned SKA1-MID surveys comprise a substantial fraction of strongly lensed galaxies. The SKA1-MID will thus provide a comprehensive view of the star formation history throughout the re-ionization epoch, unaffected by dust extinction. We have also provided specific predictions for the EMU/ASKAP and MIGHTEE/MeerKAT surveys. We finally provide a novel, unifying physical interpretation on the origin, the aver- age shape, the scatter, and the cosmic evolution for the main sequences (MS) of star- forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei at high redshift z ≳ 1. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting the redshift-dependent SFR functions, and the deterministic evolutionary tracks for the history of star formation and black hole accretion, gauged on a wealth of multiwavelength observations including the observed Eddington ratio distribution. We further validate these ingredients by showing their consistency with the observed galaxy stellar mass functions and active galactic nucleus (AGN) bolometric luminosity functions at different redshifts via, again, the continuity equation approach. Our analysis of the main sequence for high-redshift galaxies and AGNs highlights that the present data strongly support a scenario of in situ coevolution for star formation and black hole accretion, envisaging these as local, time coordinated processes.
|Titolo:||Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes at High Redshifts: In- Situ Coevolution|
|Data di pubblicazione:||12-ott-2016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||8.1 PhD thesis|