The assumption of ergodicity is the cornerstone of conventional thermodynamics, connecting the equilibrium properties of macroscopic systems to the chaotic nature of the underlying microscopic dynamics, which eventuates in thermalization and the scrambling of information contained in any generic initial condition. The modern understanding of ergodicity in a quantum mechanical framework is encapsulated in the so-called eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, which asserts that thermalization of an isolated quantum system is a manifestation of the random-like character of individual eigenstates in the bulk of the spectrum of the system's Hamiltonian. In this work, we consider two major exceptions to the rule of generic thermalization in interacting many-body quantum systems: many-body localization, and quantum spin glasses. In the first part, we debate the possibility of localization in a system endowed with a non-Abelian symmetry. We show that, in line with proposed theoretical arguments, such a system is probably delocalized in the thermodynamic limit, but the ergodization length scale is anomalously large, explaining the non-ergodic behavior observed in previous experimental and numerical works. A crucial feature of this system is the quasi-tensor-network nature of its eigenstates, which is dictated by the presence of nontrivial symmetry multiplets. As a consequence, ergodicity may only be restored by extensively large cascades of resonating spins, explaining the system's resistance to delocalization. In the second part, we study the effects of non-ergodic behavior in glassy systems in relation to the possibility of speeding up classical algorithms via quantum resources, namely tunneling across tall free energy barriers. First, we define a pseudo-tunneling event in classical diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) and characterize the corresponding tunneling rate. Our findings suggest that DMC is very efficient at tunneling in stoquastic problems even in the presence of frustrated couplings, asymptotically outperforming incoherent quantum tunneling. We also analyze in detail the impact of importance sampling, finding that it does not alter the scaling. Next, we study the so-called population transfer (PT) algorithm applied to the problem of energy matching in combinatorial problems. After summarizing some known results on a simpler model, we take the quantum random energy model as a testbed for a thorough, model-agnostic numerical characterization of the algorithm, including parameter setting and quality assessment. From the accessible system sizes, we observe no meaningful asymptotic speedup, but argue in favor of a better performance in more realistic energy landscapes.
Non-ergodic phenomena in many-body quantum systems / Parolini, Tommaso. - (2020 Oct 07).
|Titolo:||Non-ergodic phenomena in many-body quantum systems|
|Data di pubblicazione:||7-ott-2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||8.1 PhD thesis|
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