In the last decade the non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum systems has raised a huge interest for both its conceptual and practical implications. Simulation of quantum dynamics represents by now a very active research effort, with highly controllable quantum devices composed of hundreds of qubits already being realized in numerous setups. These offer the unprecedented possibility to access real-time quantum dynamics and strongly correlated quantum many-body states, opening numerous avenues not only for future quantum technologies, but also for long-standing theoretical problems. One of the most sought-after applications is the computation of real-time evolution in theories of fundamental interactions. Since Wilson's proposal in 1974, the equilibrium phase diagrams of lattice gauge theories have been successfully investigated with Monte Carlo simulations in a wide range of parameters. Nonequilibrium properties, on the other hand, cannot be accessed with conventional techniques. Thanks to the recent advances in numerics (e.g. tensor networks) and experiments (quantum simulation), new promising tools are now available for tackling these questions. Remarkable works have already demonstrated that applying these techniques to simple theories, such as one-dimensional quantum electrodynamics, can help to detect the signatures of confinement and pair creation. Despite these impressive achievements, investigating the non-equilibrium dynamics of gauge theories with quantum simulators turned out to be extremely challenging. This is mostly due to the complex constrained dynamics of these theories, which make their simulation with realistic atomic platforms particularly difficult. At the same time, the dynamical constraints can play a key role in determining novel interesting phenomena and peculiar non-equilibrium properties. These phenomena -- which include, for example, quantum scars, fractons, Hilbert space fragmentation -- can lead to anomalous dynamics, eventually evading the paradigm of thermalization, which predicts the relaxation of physical observable to their thermodynamic values. The aim of this thesis is twofold: first, we want to address through a combination of numerical and analytical tools some of the open questions regarding the non-equilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body systems with constrained Hilbert spaces, including lattice gauge theories. In addition, the work reported here is part of a large effort of the community towards the quantum simulation of complex phenomena of condensed matter and high-energy physics.

Lattice gauge theories and constrained systems: from quantum simulation to non-equilibrium dynamics / Surace, Federica Maria. - (2021 Sep 29).

Lattice gauge theories and constrained systems: from quantum simulation to non-equilibrium dynamics

Surace, Federica Maria
2021-09-29

Abstract

In the last decade the non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum systems has raised a huge interest for both its conceptual and practical implications. Simulation of quantum dynamics represents by now a very active research effort, with highly controllable quantum devices composed of hundreds of qubits already being realized in numerous setups. These offer the unprecedented possibility to access real-time quantum dynamics and strongly correlated quantum many-body states, opening numerous avenues not only for future quantum technologies, but also for long-standing theoretical problems. One of the most sought-after applications is the computation of real-time evolution in theories of fundamental interactions. Since Wilson's proposal in 1974, the equilibrium phase diagrams of lattice gauge theories have been successfully investigated with Monte Carlo simulations in a wide range of parameters. Nonequilibrium properties, on the other hand, cannot be accessed with conventional techniques. Thanks to the recent advances in numerics (e.g. tensor networks) and experiments (quantum simulation), new promising tools are now available for tackling these questions. Remarkable works have already demonstrated that applying these techniques to simple theories, such as one-dimensional quantum electrodynamics, can help to detect the signatures of confinement and pair creation. Despite these impressive achievements, investigating the non-equilibrium dynamics of gauge theories with quantum simulators turned out to be extremely challenging. This is mostly due to the complex constrained dynamics of these theories, which make their simulation with realistic atomic platforms particularly difficult. At the same time, the dynamical constraints can play a key role in determining novel interesting phenomena and peculiar non-equilibrium properties. These phenomena -- which include, for example, quantum scars, fractons, Hilbert space fragmentation -- can lead to anomalous dynamics, eventually evading the paradigm of thermalization, which predicts the relaxation of physical observable to their thermodynamic values. The aim of this thesis is twofold: first, we want to address through a combination of numerical and analytical tools some of the open questions regarding the non-equilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body systems with constrained Hilbert spaces, including lattice gauge theories. In addition, the work reported here is part of a large effort of the community towards the quantum simulation of complex phenomena of condensed matter and high-energy physics.
Dalmonte, Marcello
Silva, Alessandro
Surace, Federica Maria
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11767/124629
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