Bosonic excitations within long-range ordered, but strongly inhomogeneous phases have been studied in quite some detail. My thesis focuses instead on understanding the insulating, localized phase of disordered bosonic systems. In particular I study localization properties of strongly interacting bosons and spin systems in a disorder potential at zero temperature. I focus on simple, prototypical spin models (Ising model and XY model) in random fields on a Cayley tree with large connectivity. Regarding the nature of the quantum phase transition in strong disorder I find the following results: i) With a uniformly distributed disorder non-extensive excitations in the disordered phase are all localized. ii)Moreover, I find that the order arises due to a collective condensation, which is qualitatively distinct from a Bose Einstein condensation of single particle excitations into a delocalized state. In particular, in non-frustrated Bose glasses, I do not find evidence for a boson mobility edge in the Bose glass. These results are qualitatively different from claims in the recent literatures . Considering that (many body) localization of bosons is a kind of quantum glass transition, it is an interesting question to ask what phenomena occur, if the ingredients for more conventional (classical) glassy physics are added to a disordered bosons system, namely: random, frustrated interactions between the bosons. One can still think about such a system as bosons in a disordered potential, where the disordered potential is, at least partly, self-generated by random frustrated interactions between the bosons. This question takes us to the study of another type of disordered systems: glassy systems. Those are typically characterized by low temperature phases with an inhomogeneous density or magnetization pattern, which is extremely long-lived due to the occurrence of non-trivial ergodicity breaking. I study a solvable model of hard core bosons (pseudospins) subject to disorder and frustrating interactions. This solvable model provides insight into the possibility of coexistence of super uidity and glassy density order, as well as into the nature of the coexistence phase (the superglass). In particular, for the considered mean field model I prove the existence of a superglass phase. This complements the numerical evidence for such phases provided by quantum Monte Carlo investigations in finite dimensions and on random graphs. Those were, however, limited to finite temperature, and could thus not fully elucidate the structure of the phases at T = 0. In contrast, my analytical approach allows one to understand the quantum phase transition between glassy superfluid and insulator, and the non-trivial role played by glassy correlations. When the frustrated interactions are strong enough, the superfluid order may be destroyed. As I will show in a mean field model, this happens within the glass phase of the system, where a disorder induced superfluid-insulator phase transition takes place to give way to a frustrated Bose glass. The glassy background on top of which this happens leads to many interesting phenomena which seem not to have been noticed before. To understand the nature of the glassy superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition at zero temperature and the transport properties on the insulating, Bose glass side of the transition is the goal of the third part of my thesis. To address the above questions, I studied an exactly solvable model of a glassy superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition on a Bethe lattice geometry with high connectivity. My main results can be summarized as follows: i) I found that the superfluid-insulator transition is shifted to stronger hopping. This is a result of the pseudo gap in the density of states of the glass state, which tends to strongly disfavor the onset of superfluidity. ii) In the glassy insulator, the discrete local energy levels become broadened due to the quantum fluctuations.The level-broadening process appears as a phase transition which has strong similarities with an Anderson localization transition, and has implications on many body localization. By using the locator expansion for bosons I found that, the glassy insulator has a finite mobility edge for the bosonic excitations, which, however, does not close upon approaching the SI quantum phase transition point. This finding helps to understand the nature of the superfluid-to-frustrated Bose glass transition: the superfluid emerges as a collective phase ordering phenomenon at zero temperature, and not as a condensation in to a single particle delocalized state, in contrast to opposite predictions in the recent literatures. The existence of a mobility edge in the insulator suggests the possibility of phononless, activated transport in the bosonic insulator, which might be a candidate explanation for the experimentally seen activated transport, which has remained a mystery for a long time.